Here you can find a complete guide for sport injuries and its description www.sportsinjuryclinic.net
The ABC of the CPR
The first step of CPR is to assess the victim and check responsiveness. Gently shake the victim and shout, "Are you OK?" If the person answers, CPR is not needed. If the person is unresponsive or conscious and showing signs of a stroke or heart attack, call 9-1-1 immediately and initiate the ABC's which include:
A-Airway: If the person is unresponsive, open the airway as soon as you've called 911. If the victim has no head or neck injuries, gently tilt the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other. Place your ear near the mouth and listen and feel for breath while looking at the chest to see if it is rising and falling.
B-Breaths: If the person is not breathing normally, give two rescue breaths. Keeping the victim's head tilted, pinch the nose closed and place your mouth around their mouth. Give two slow, full breaths (about two seconds each), while watching to see that the chest rises with each breath. After delivering two breaths, check for signs of circulation, such as breathing, coughing, movement or responsiveness. Keeping the head tilted, once again place your ear near the mouth and listen, feel, and look for signs of breathing while you watch for movement. The American Heart Association does not recommend trying to find a pulse, which can be difficult for lay people and delay chest compressions.
C-Chest Compressions: If no circulation is detected, begin chest compressions. Place the heel of one hand in the center of the chest (right between the nipples), with the heel of the second hand on top. Position your body directly over your hands, elbows locked. Give 15 compressions by pushing the breastbone down about two inches, allowing the chest to return to normal between compressions. Use the full weight of your body and DO NOT bend your elbows. After 15 compressions, make sure the victim's head is tilted, and give two more rescue breaths. Repeat this "pump and blow" cycle three more times, for a total of 60 compressions.
Re-check for signs of circulation
If no signs of circulation, repeat the pump-and-blow cycle until circulation resumes or help arrives.
When performing CPR, keep in mind that the person you are working on is clinically dead: You cannot make the situation any worse. Don't be afraid to put your whole weight behind each compression - a cracked rib can be repaired, dead brain cells cannot.
Someone is lofted or dragged to impact, often enough they may try to convince you and themselves that they are OK. This from personal experience and other stories I have heard about. The simple solution is to call for medical attention and have them evaluate the guy properly. This approach isn't used all the time, victims sometimes just want to walk it off (concussion and perhaps brain hemorrhage?!). There was at least one lofting victim who may well have suffered paralysis from this course of action.
So what to do? Call the EMTs, even if it means overruling the victim in what may be a serious case. . If that isn't going to happen for whatever reason, good one or not, carefully consider the following from the CDC. btw, the victim should be immobile until help arrives with his neck held motionless along with other first aid as indicated
"One method to categorize victims of head injury is to consider them to be divided into two groups, according to whether or not they have lost consciousness. If a victim has not lost consciousness, this implies a lesser injury, but like everything in medicine, is not infallible. If someone has lost consciousness, even for a few seconds, the red flag is up for a potentially serious injury. Always be aware that the dazed or unconscious victim cannot protect his airway; you must be vigilant in your observation. The most common dangerous complication of head injury is obstruction of the airway with the tongue, blood, or vomitus. The most common associated serious injury is a broken neck.
Loss of Consciousness
If a person struck in the head has lost consciousness, he has suffered at least a concussion. The following signs and symptoms are commonly associated with a concussion: unaware of what happened; confusion; loss of memory; loss of consciousness; headache or sensation of pressure in the head; dizziness; balance problems; nausea; vomiting; feeling “foggy,” “dazed,” or “stunned;” visual problems (e.g., seeing stars or flashing lights, or seeing double); hearing problems (e.g., ringing in the ears); irritability or emotional changes; slowness or fatigue; inability to follow directions or slow to answer questions; easily distracted or poor concentration; inappropriate emotioinal behavior; glassy-eyed or vacant starting; slurred speech; seizure.
1. Protect the airway and cervical spine.
2. If the victim wakes up after no more than a minute or two and quickly regains his normal mental status and physical abilities, he has probably suffered a minor injury—so long as there is no relapse into unconsciousness or persistent lethargy, nausea or vomiting, or severe headache. If the victim is far from help, he should undertake no vigorous activity and be kept under close observation for at least 24 hours. Normal sleep should be interrupted every 2 to 3 hours to briefly ensure that his condition has not deteriorated. Confusion or amnesia for the event that caused the blackout is not uncommon and not necessarily serious, so long as the confusion does not persist for more than 30 minutes. Because a serious brain injury may not become apparent for hours, the wilderness traveler who has been "knocked out" should not venture farther from civilization for 24 hours. If headache and/or nausea persist beyond 2 to 3 hours, or if the victim seems in any way altered with respect to mental status, the victim should begin to make his way (assisted by rescuers) to medical care.
If the injury is minor and evacuation is not undertaken, advance the victim’s activity as follows: no activity and complete rest until without symptoms; next, light walking without any heavy lifting or resistance activity; next, mild exercise with slight resistance; finally, full activity. Do not progress beyond one “level” each 24 hour period.
3. If the victim wakes up and is at first completely normal, only to become drowsy or disoriented, or lapses back into unconsciousness (typically, after 30 to 60 minutes of normal behavior), he should be evacuated and rushed to a hospital. This may indicate bleeding from an artery inside the skull, causing an expanding blood clot (epidural hematoma) that compresses the brain. Frequently, the unconscious victim with an epidural hematoma will be noted to have one pupil significantly larger than the other.
4. If the victim awakens but has a severe headache, bleeding from the ears or nose with no obvious external injury to those organs, clear fluid draining from the ear or nose, unequal-sized or poorly reactive (do not constrict promptly upon exposure to bright light) pupils, weakness, bruising behind the ears or under the eyes, vomiting, or persistent drowsiness, he might have a skull fracture. Such signs mandate immediate evacuation to a medical facility.
5. If the victim suffers a seizure after a head injury, no matter how brief, he should be transported to a medical facility.
6. If the victim does not wake up promptly after a head injury (unconscious for more than 10 minutes), has bleeding from an ear, has unequal or nonreactive (do not constrict to bright light) pupils, has clear fluid from the nose, has a profound headache, is weak in an arm or leg, is disoriented, or has a fluctuating level of consciousness (normal one minute, drowsy the next), he may have suffered a significant brain injury and should be immediately rushed to a medical facility. Because there is a high incidence of associated neck injuries, any person with a serious head injury should have his cervical spine immobilized. Head injuries often cause vomiting. Therefore, be prepared to turn the victim on his side so that he doesn’t choke."
Kiteboarding & Travel Medicine
Take it as given that when it comes to travel medicine you need to consult with your own physician although a lot of good ideas for consideration are given in the article. A version of the article carried by SBC Kiteboard before final editing appears below with active links:
The is a whole world of wind and Kiteboarding adventure out there just waiting to be explored and savored. The goal is to grab all the stoke in your travels and return with great memories fired up to head out on another voyage. NOT to deal with medical treatment and rehab for injury and/or disease picked up along the way. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) based in the USA reports 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 of the approximate 10,000,000 Americans who travel out of the USA, become ill as a result of their travels. That is a lot of diarrhea among other disorders, some quite serious such as malaria, hepatitis and HIV. Some of the risks are considered below and were adapted from (1):
Food and Water Precautions
90% of travelers' diarrhea stems from food- and water-borne sources, many cases can be prevented by taking adequate precautions. Be careful what you eat and drink including tap water in many locales and wash your hands frequently. Not all cooked food is safe as it may not be fresh, particularly in buffets. Only accept bottled water with a sealed lid. Use bottled water to brush your teeth and don’t use ice made from tap water. Avoid raw food such as salads, uncooked vegetables, unpasteurized milk and milk products, such as cheese. Eat food that has been cooked and is still hot, and fruit that you have peeled. Don't eat undercooked or raw meat, fish or shellfish. Don't consume food or drinks from street vendors. Be wary of food on your homebound flight. Some suggest carrying Imodium and request an antibiotic prescription before they leave their home country to treat diarrhea.
Years ago the author was on a diving/drilling expedition seeking Columbus’ vessel the Santa Maria presumed to be entombed within a coral reef off the north coast of Haiti. Everyone succumbed to particularly nasty travelers’ diarrhea, including our expedition leader. Over-the-counter morphium based medication combined with sleep depravation, dehydration and an advanced dose of the “Christophes, the local nickname for diarrhea” had him hallucinating a detailed interview with Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Sadly, despite bringing back lots of interesting conversation, our man failed to remember details about where the Santa Maria lay.
Before leaving for any destination potentially excluding, the USA, Canada, Europe, Japan or Australia, some recommend that travelers be immunized against Hepatitis A, which is typically spread through fecal contaminated food and water. (1) It can also be contracted by close contact with someone who is already infected. Twinrix is a popular Hepatitis vaccine which is recommended to be administered at least 6 months on a sequential injection schedule prior to travel. More about vaccinations below.
Yellow Fever Card
Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus spread by the bite of infected mosquitos in parts of Africa and South America. It can result in a variety illnesses and can lead to death. Vaccination is required to enter certain countries. After receiving the vaccine, you should receive an International Certificate of Vaccination (Yellow Card) that has been validated by the vaccination center. This Certificate becomes valid 10 days after vaccination and lasts for 10 years. Consult your health department or visit CDC’s travel information website for more information on which countries this is required for.
Malaria has been a threat to mankind for millennia and was identified as far back as 1600 B.C.. Although virtually eliminated in temperate parts of the world, malaria is still a threat in subtropical and tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Central and South America. (2). Developing drug and pesticide resistance have contributed to the resurgence of malaria in these areas. Malaria is transmitted to humans by the anopheles mosquito which through its bite introduces a parasitic protozoa that manifests the disease. Malaria has reportedly claimed more lives than all wars and other diseases combined through time.
Some malaria vaccines are reportedly NO LONGER effective against some resistant protozoa strains. The emergence of drug resistant protozoa and increased travel to exotic locales (like quite a few Kiteboarding destinations), have put travelers at greater risk. This risk can be reduced by working to avoid insect bites through bed netting, proper clothing (On the beach? Whoops!) and applying DEET insect repellents. If pregnant, avoid travel to malaria prone areas. (4) (5) Avoiding swampy and other areas with abundant mosquitoes while Kiteboarding makes good sense.
Contact with Polluted Water (Kiteboarders take note!)
Don't swim in stagnant or polluted water or after a heavy rainfall. Riding near stream and river mouths or in coastal areas in some regions may carry health hazards. Be particularly cautious if the stream discharging to the ocean is often dry but is flowing due to recent rainfall. Shower before and after, and wash cuts and scrapes with clean water, soap and apply antibiotics and sterile dressings.
Vaccinations In General
The CDC has an excellent Internet reference site that explores travel medicine and precautions in detail. (3) Including: What You Need to Know About Vaccinations and Travel: A Checklist If you haven't looked up the CDC health information for destinations, do so now.
First Aid Kit
Bring proper first aid kit along to deal with cuts, scrapes, routine jellyfish stings, diarrhea, pain relief and the like. Things to consider packing include but are not limited to personal prescription medication more than sufficient for the entire trip, Benadryl, aspirin/analgesics, antibiotics, alcohol, sterile dressings, etc.. The more remote and exotic your destination the more complete and exotic your first aid kit should be. Don’t count upon being readily able to buy this stuff in many wind destinations.
Check your medical coverage. Most private insurers and Medicare don't cover hospital or medical costs outside the United States or pay for emergency medical evacuation. Consider purchasing travel insurance for this that DOESN’T have an extreme sports or Kiteboarding exclusion. Such insurance often doesn’t cost that much but can be a God sent in an emergency.
It would be good to look over some travel information produced by the CDC (3) to put travel precautions for some destinations in perspective, like:
- The Caribbean … http://www.cdc.gov/travel/caribean.htm
- Mexico and Central America … http://www.cdc.gov/travel/camerica.htm
- Northern part of South America (Brazil) … http://www.cdc.gov/travel/tropsam.htm
- Australia and the South Pacific … http://www.cdc.gov/travel/austspac.htm
For more information there is a general travel medicine that covers 21 useful categories. (5) in addition to the CDC o the other references cited throughout this article. Various countries also have Department of Health information on related matters.
The Yellow Book Health Information for International Travel, 2005-2006 prepared by the CDC provides a lot of this information in a portable book format, more at: http://www.cdc.gov/travel/yb/
NOTE: This article has been prepared for general informational purposes only. Evaluate potential travel risks and appropriate preventative measures with qualified medical experts before travel to risk areas.
(1) http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1031002363.html (2) http://www.aafp.org/afp/990501ap/2523.html (3) http://www.cdc.gov/travel/index.htm (4) http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/DS/00475.html (5) http://www.travmed.com
Kiteboarding Travel Safety
Kiteboarders would be well advised to consider the following precautions and other appropriate factors when riding abroad:
1. Research probable weather, wind, wave and temperature conditions at the lauches you will be visiting. Make sure you have appropriate gear (kite size, exposure clothing, etc. for actual conditions).
2. Become acquainted with local restrictions, guidelines and other advise through kitebeaches.com, local associations (consider joining), shops and schools. Visitors should not threaten local access!
3. When you first arrive speak to locals at the launch about conditions and other considerations before rigging up and going out. LISTEN to what they have to say. Don’t be like that guy that visited Oz sometime back, who ignored repeated warnings from locals about extreme gusty conditions for a couple of days until he was lofted into the second story wall of a building, ouch! If there are no locals to ask, think carefully about riding in the first place.
4. Be conservative in kite selection, weather and riding area particularly when you first arrive. Travel fatigue can sneak up on you. Use appropriate safety gear.
5. If you are traveling alone, make sure someone knows where you are, when you expect to be back and whom to contact if you fail to show on time. At the same time, NEVER KITEBOARD ALONE particularly out of the country.
6. Carry waterproof ID and proof of insurance whenever you ride. Receipt of complete rapid medical care may rely upon this.
7. Just like back home, continuously stay aware of your surroundings and changes in the weather. If things appear to deteriorate, don’t wait, depower early and fully secure your kite.
8. Hydrate regularly with bottle water and wear appropriate sunblock.
9. Avoid excessive partying combined with Kiteboarding, worse aggravated by travel fatigue. Accidents will happen, this practice only pumps the odds up more.
10. Some launch areas warrant securing chaseboats for emergency pickup service. If this is needed and available ARRANGE for it. Remember something about the islands, once you leave the island and are drifting away with the wind and current … there you are.
Be an informed traveler. Good winds and bring home some great stories!
FKA, Inc., transcribed by: Rick Iossi